Turkmenistan

Population Size

5,942,089 [1]

Number of people who have experienced domestic abuse per annum

Official National Statistics Not Available [2]

Underreporting is high due to the social legitimacy of domestic abuse and the accompanied impunity. Women are unaware of their rights. [3]

No research on male victims or other gender identities.

Cost to the country's economy

No research.

Estimated increase due to COVID-19

No research.


Current law and policy:

On 10 April 2015, the Government of Turkmenistan presented the National Action Plan (NAP) on Gender Equality in Turkmenistan for 2015-2020. The NAP includes a plan of action to combat domestic violence in Turkmenistan. 

The National Action Plan was developed by the Working group of the Inter-ministerial Commission on Treaty Bodies of Turkmenistan under the leadership role of the National Institute of Democracy and Human Rights and with support of the UNFPA international consultants. The plan will address issues such as further engendering the legislation of Turkmenistan, the elimination of discrimination against women, promotion of equal opportunities for women, equal access to quality education, health care and the labour market, as well as the fulfillment of international treaty obligations.  

It’s noteworthy that the plan also outlines the actions for elimination of violence against women, which for the first time will help address the issue of domestic violence in Turkmenistan. In light of this, the National Institute of Democracy and Human Rights with UNFPA technical support will conduct a sample survey on domestic violence. The results of the survey will be analysed and provide evidence-based data to identify the next steps forward.[4]

On April 2017, the National Institute of Democracy and Human Rights (under the President of Turkmenistan) and UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund), met up to establish a monitoring and evaluation framework for the National Action Plan (NAP) on Gender Equality in Turkmenistan for 2015-2020.   The focus of the roundtable, organized by the National Institute of Democracy and Human Rights under the President of Turkmenistan and UNFPA, United Nations Population Fund was to establish a monitoring and evaluation framework for the National Action Plan (NAP) on Gender Equality in Turkmenistan for 2015-2020.[5]


The NAP on Gender Equality was developed with support of UNFPA and approved on 22 January 2015, and substantial work has already been done for realization of the plan. This includes awareness raising trainings among line ministries, legislative analysis and its improvement, studies of international legislative practices in domestic violence, and dissemination of information on gender equality among the public. [6]

Ahead of the 2019 Nairobi ICPD25 Summit, Turkmenistan has committed to adopt state policies, support services and laws preventing domestic violence - Turkmenistan strives to address gender-based violence by conducting the survey on the Health and Status of women in the Family in 2020, the results of which will inform the state policy on domestic violence and policy actions and progress monitoring of the relevant Sustainable Development Goals targets. 

  •  Turkmenistan works to adopt a law on promoting family well-being and preventing domestic violence by 2021. 

  • In line with the ongoing work to prevent domestic violence, standard operating procedures are being developed for health, law enforcement and social services professionals to coordinate and provide assistance to women victims of violence, taking into account human rights principles. 

[7]

On 12 November 2019 at the Nairobi Summit on ICPD25, the Deputy Minister of Health & Medical Industry, delivered a speech on Turkmenistan’s commitments towards promoting gender equality and gender-based violence prevention. The national delegation of Turkmenistan is led by Mr. Arslangylych Gylyjov, Deputy Minister of Health and Medical Industry, and includes Mr. Gurbanmyrat Ashyrov, Head of Committee on Social Policy of the Mejlis, and Mr. Dovlet Chotbayev, a representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 


At the Summit, Turkmenistan will also reinforce its political will by highlighting the progress made since 1994 and making financial and policy commitments towards:  achieving universal access to reproductive health and improving maternal health, expanding the comprehensive reproductive health education and information for adolescents, promoting gender equality and taking action to prevent gender-based violence, and drawing on quality data to drive economic growth and achieve sustainable development. [8]

On 10 July 2018, CEDAW (Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women) considered Turkmenistan’s fifth periodic report on its implementation of the CEDAW. Presently, there is no specific law on domestic violence/violence against women. Only legislation that criminalises violence in any form. Turning to issues of violence against women, the Deputy Minister said that perpetrators of domestic violence, sexual violence and trafficking in persons were prosecuted and sanctioned. There was no specific law on domestic violence or violence against women, but women were protected under this general approach, and the fact that the legislation criminalized violence in any form. Turkmenistan was currently undertaking a survey on violence against women and understanding its causes, on the basis of which changes to the current legislation would be drafted, and a decision would be taken whether to proceed with drafting a specific legislation on domestic violence. [9]


 

Sources


[1] The World Bank, (1).

[2] UN Women, “Global Database on Violence Against Women – Turkmenistan”, (evaw-global-database.unwomen.org)

[3] Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI), “Turkmenistan” (2019)

[4] United Nations Turkmenistan, “The National Action Plan on Gender Equality presented” (10 April 2015)

[5] United Nations Turkmenistan, “National Action Plan on Gender Equality Discussed” (12 April 2017)

[6] UN OHCHR, “Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women reviews the report of Turkmenistan” (10 July 2018)

[7] Nairobi Summit ICPD, “Turkmenistan: Addressing gender-based violence” (31 October 2019)

[8] UNFPA Turkmenistan, “NEWS: From Cairo 1994 to Nairobi 2019: Reigniting the movement for rights and choice for all” (12 November 2019)

[9] United Nations OHCHR, “Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women reviews the report of Turkmenistan” (10 July 2018)